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What is Vision Therapy?

Visually related learning difficulties

"Lazy" eyes

Binocular coordination therapy

Sports vision therapy

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Vision therapy references

How to refer to Calgary Vision Therapy

Location and hours


Convergence (Eye Teaming) Dysfunction Research

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• Birnbaum MH. Automaticity in fusional vergence therapy. J Am Optom Assoc, 1995;66(8):471-478.
• Birnbaum MH. Optometric management of nearpoint vision disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
• Birnbaum MH, Soden R, Cohen AH. Efficacy of vision therapy for convergence insufficiency in an adult male population. J Am Optom Assoc 1999; 70(4):225-32. Birnbaum P, Birnbaum MH. Binocular coordination as a factor in reading achievement. J Am Optom Assoc 1968;39:48-56.
• Burian HM, Von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility, 3rd ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby, 1985.
• Buzzelli A. Vergence facility: developmental trends in a school age population. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1986;63:351-5.
• Ciuffreda KJ. Components of clinical near vergence testing. J BehavOptom 1992;3:3-13.
• Clark B. Additional data on binocular imbalance and reading. J Educ Psych 1936;27:530-38.
• Cohn AH, Soden R. Effectiveness of visual therapy for convergence insufficiencies for an adult population. J Am Optom Assoc 1984;55:491-494.
• Cooper J. Review of computerized orthoptics with specific regard to convergence insufficiency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1988;65:455-63.
• Cooper J, Duckman R. Convergence insufficiency: incidence, diagnosis, and treatment. J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:673-80.
• Cooper J, Feldman J. Operant conditioning of fusional convergence ranges using random dot stereograms. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:205-13.
• Cooper J, Selenow A, Ciuffreda KJ, et al. Reduction of asthenopia in patients with convergence insufficiency after fusional vergence training. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1983;60:982-9.
• Capobianco M. The subjective measurement of the near point of convergence and its significance in the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. Am Orthoptics J. 1952;2:40-42.
• Dalziel CC. Effect of vision training on patients who fail Sheard’s criterion. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1981;58:21-1223.
• Daum KM. The course and effect of visual training on the vergence system. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1982;59: 223-7.
• Daum KM. Convergence insufficiency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1984;61:16-22.
• Daum KM. Classification criterion for success in the treatment of convergence insufficiency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1984; 61: 10- 5.
• Daum KM. A comparison of the results of tonic and phasic training on the vergence system. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1983;60:769-75.
• Davis CE. Orthoptics treatment in convergence insufficiency. J Can Med Assoc. 1956;55:47-49.
• Delgadillo HM, Griffin JR. Vergence facility and associated symptoms. J Behav Optom 1992;3:91-4.
• The efficacy of optometric vision therapy. 1986/87 AOA Future of Visual Development/Performance Task Force. J Am Optom Assoc 1988;59:95-105.
• Ficarra AP, Berman J, Rosenfield M, Portello JK. Vision training: predictive factors for success in visual therapy for patients with convergence excess. J Optom Vis Dev 1996; 27:213-9. Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. IN: Hirsh MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of Children. Philadelphia: Clinton, 1963.
• Fowler MS. Binocular control in dyslexics. In: Stein JF; ed. Vision and visual dyslexia. Boston: CRC Press, 1991;141-6.
• France LW. The role of orthoptic therapy in exodeviations: a basis for orthoptic referral. Am Orthoptic J 1992,Oct:42(1):52-64.
• Gallaway M, Scheiman M. The efficacy of vision therapy for convergence excess. J Am Optom Assoc 1997; 68(2):81-6. Garzia RP, Nicholson SB. Binocular accommodative and vergence facility and predictive analysis of global stereopsis. J Behav Optom 1991;2:3-6.
• Griffin JR. Binocular anomalies: procedures for vision therapy. 2nd ed. Chicago: Professional Press, 1982.
• Griffin JR. Efficacy of vision therapy for non-strabismic vergence anomalies. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:11-14.
• Griffin JR. Ranges in vergence testing. Optom Monthly 1981;72:30-1.
• Grisham J. The dynamics of fusional vergence eye movements in binocular dysfunction. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:645-55.
• Grisham J. Treatment of binocular dysfunction. In: Schor C, Ciuffreda KJ, eds. Vergence eye movements. Boston: Butter- worths, 1983:605-46.
• Grisham JD. Visual therapy results for convergence insufficiency: a literature review. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1988;65:448-54.
• Grisham JD, Bowman MC, Owyang LA, et al. Vergence orthoptics: Validity and persistence of the training effect. Optom Vis Sci 1992: 68(6):441-451.
• Gross, DA. Ocular Accommodation, Convergence, and Fixation Disparity: A Manual of Clinical Analysis (2nd ed). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995.
• Hikoda SC. General binocular dysfunctions in an urban optometry clinic. J Am Optom Assoc 1985;56:560-563.
• Hoffman L, Cohen A, Feuer G. Effectiveness of non-strabismic optometric vision training in a private practice. Am J Optom & Arch Am Cad Opt, 1973;50:813-816.
• Jackson TW, Goss DA. Variation and correlation of standard clinical phoroptor tests of phorias, vergence ranges, and relative accommodation in a sample of school-age children. J Am Optom Assoc 1991;62:540.
• Kent PR, Steeve JH. Convergence insufficiency: Incidence among military personnel and relief by orthoptics methods. Milit Surgeon 1953:112:202-205.
• Koslowe KC. Binocular vision, coding tests and classroom achievement. J Behav Optom 1991;2(1):16-19.
• Mohindra I, Molinari J. Convergence insufficiency: Its diagnosis and management--Part 1. Optometric Monthly. 1980;71:(3):38-43.
• Mohindra I, Molinari J. Convergence insufficiency: Its diagnosis and management--Part 2. Optometric Monthly. 1980;71:(4):222-25.
• Mohindra I, Molinari J. Convergence insufficiency: Its diagnosis and management--Part 3. Optometric Monthly. 1980;71:(5):310-13.
• Norse MS. Convergence insufficiency: Incidence in opthalmic practice. Results of Orthoptics treatment. Acta Ophthalmol(Kbl)1966;44:132-38.
• Pantano FM. Orthoptic treatment of convergence insufficiency: A two-year follow-up report. Am Orthopt J 1982; 32:73-80. Pickwell LD. Binocular Vision Anomalies: Investigation and Treatment, 2nd ed. London: Butterworth, 1989.
• Pickwell LD, Dorth, Stephens LC. Inadequate convergence. Brit J Physiol Optics 1975;30:34-37.
• Pickwell LD, Hampshire R. The significance of inadequate convergence. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1981;1:13-18.
• Prakash P, Agarwal L, Nag S. Accommodational weakness and convergence insufficiency. Orient Arch Ophthalmol 1972;10:261-4.
• Press LJ. Accommodative and Vergence Disorders: Restoring Balance to a Distressed System. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.
• Richman JE, Cohen E. Rehabilitation techniques for binocular dysfunction. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania College of Optometry, 1975.
• Rouse MW: Optometric assessment of visual efficiency problems. In: Scheiman MM, Rouse MW, eds. Optometric management of learning-related vision problems. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994.
• Schor CM. Models of mutual interactions between accommodation and convergence. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1985;62:369-74.
• Schor CM, Ciuffreda KJ , eds. Vergence eye movements: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butterworth, 1983.
• Scheiman M, Wick B. Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative, and eye movement disorders. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994.
• Shippman S, Infantino J, Cimbol D, Cohen KR, Weseley AC. Convergence insufficiency with normal parameters. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1983;20:158-61.
• Stein JF, Riddell P, Fowler MS. Disordered vergence movement control in dyslexic children. Br J Ophthalmol 1988;72:162-6.
• Stein JF. Riddell P, Fowler MS. Fine binocular control in dyslexic children. Eye 1987; 1:433-8.
• Suchoff IB, Petito GT. The efficacy of visual therapy: accommodative disorders and non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:119-25.
• Tait EF. Accommodative convergence. Am J Ophthalmol 1951;34:1093-1107.
• Thorn F, Gwiazda J, Cruz AAV; Bauer JA, Held R. The development of eye alignment, convergence, and sensory binocularity in young infants. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994;35:544-53.
• Vaegan JL. Convergence and divergence show longer and sustained improvement after short isometric exercise. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1979;56:23-33.
• Vaegan JL, McMonnies C. Clinical vergence training. Aust J Optom 1979;62:28-36.
• Vaegan JL. Convergence and divergence show large and sustained improvement after short isometric exercise. Am J Op- tom Physiol Opt 1979;56:23-33.
• Wick B. Vision therapy for nonstrabismic patients. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1977;54:244-47.
• Wold RM, Pierce JR, Keddington J. Effectiveness of optometric vision therapy. J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:1047-59.