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What is Vision Therapy?

Visually related learning difficulties

"Lazy" eyes

Binocular coordination therapy

Sports vision therapy

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Vision therapy references

How to refer to Calgary Vision Therapy

Location and hours


Reading, Learning and School Performance

• American Foundation for Vision Awareness, "Children's vision and literacy campaign position paper", St. Louis: AFVA, 1993, p. 4.
• Atzmon D, Nemet P, Ishay A, Karni E. A randomized prospective masked and matched comparative study of orthoptic treatment versus conventional reading tutoring treatment for reading disabilities in 62 children. Binoc Vis 1993;8(2):91-103.
• Birnbaum MH. Vision disorders frequently interfere with reading and learning. J Behav Optom 1993;4(3): 66,69-71.
• Birnbaum P, Birnbaum MH. Binocular coordination as a factor in reading achievement. J Am Optom Assoc 1968;39:48-56.
• Borsting E. Measures of visual attention in children with and without visual efficiency problems. J Hehav Optom 1991;2:151-6.
• Borsting E. Visual perception and reading. In: Garzia R, ed. Vision and reading. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996:149-73.
• Busby RA. Vision development in the classroom. J Learn DisabiI 1985;18:266-72.
• Christenson GN, Griffin JR, Wesson MD. Optometry's role in reading disabilities: Resolving the controversy. J Am Optom Assoc 1990;61:363-72.
• Clark B. Additional data on binocular imbalance and reading. J Educ Psych 1936;27:530-38.
• Ciufredda KJ, Bahill AT, Kenyon RV, et al. Eye movements during reading: case reports. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1976; 53:389-95.
• Does Your Child Have a Learning-Related Vision Problem?, Optometric Extension Program Foundation, Inc.: Santa Ana, 1995.
• Egger MA, Clay OK, Dunning DP, et al. The effects of vision on learning and school performance. Oregon Optometric Association, 1992.
• Flax N. The contribution of visual problems to learning disability. J Am Optom Assoc 1970;41:841-45.
• Flax N. Problems in relating visual function to reading disorder. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1970;47:366-372.
• Forrest E. Functional vision and its impact on learning. J Optom Vis Dev 1982;13(2):12-15.
• Garzia R. "The Relationship Between Visual Efficiency Problems and Learning", In: Optometric Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems, Scheiman MN, Rouse MW, St. Louis: Mosby, 1994, pp. 153-175.
• Garzia R, ed. Vision and reading. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996:57-58.
• Garzia RP, Nicholson SB. Vision function and reading disability: an optometric viewpoint. J Am Optom Assoc 1990;61:88-96.
• Garzia RP, Peck CK. Vision and reading II: eye movements. J Optom Vis Dev 1994;25 :4- 37 .
• Getman GN. Smart in everything except school. Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1992:44-60.
• Getman GN. The visuomotor complex in the acquisition of learning skills. In: Hellmuth J, ed. Learning disorders; vol 1. Seattle, Washington: Special Child Publications, 1965 :49- 76.
• Getz D. Learning enhancement through vision therapy. Acad Therapy 1980;15(4):457-466.
• Gottfried AW, Gilman G. "Visual skills and intellectual development: A relationship in young children", J Am Optom Assoc. Vol. 56, No. 7, July 1985, p. 554
• Griffin DC. Saccades as related to reading disorders. J Learn Disab 1974;7:50-58.
• Griffin JR, Walton HN. Therapy in dyslexia and reading problems including vision, perception and motor skills. Los Angeles, California: I-Med, 1985.
• Griffin JR, Christenson GN, et al. Optometric Management of Reading Dysfunction. Newton: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996.
• Grisham D, Simons H. Perspectives on reading disabilities. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW (eds) Principles and Practice of Pediatric Optometry. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott, 518-559.
• Hammer LR, Shimada LM, Hoffman LG. Teacher awareness of the role of vision therapy in the child with learning problems. J Optom Vis Dev 1988;19(3):6-12.
• Heath, EJ, et al. Eye exercises and reading efficiency. Academic Therapy 1976;11:435-45.
• Helveston EM, Weber JC, Miller K, et al. Visual function and academic performance. Am J Ophthalmol 1985; 99:346-55.
• Hoffman LG. Incidence of vision difficulties in children with learning disabilities. J Am Optom Assoc 1980;51:447-51.
• Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 1. Optom Monthly 1979;70(2):78-81.
• Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 2. Optom Monthly 1979;70(3):77-82.
• Hoffman LG. An optometric learning disability evaluation- part 3. Optom Monthly 1979; 70(4): 70-77.
• Hoffman LG. "The Role of the Optometrist in the Diagnosis and Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems", In: Optometric Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems, Scheiman MM, Rouse MW, St. Louis: Mosby, 1994, p. 218.
• Jones A, Stark L. Abnormal Patterns of normal eye movements in specific dyslexia. In: Rayner K (ed.) Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:481-498.
• Jones L. "A Clear Eyed View of Developmental Optometry", Heart of Homeschooling, Winter 1995, p. 6.
• Kamien M. "When a Bright Child Has Trouble Reading", Optometric Extension Program Foundation: Santa Ana, 1995.
• Koslowe KC. Binocular vision, coding tests and classroom achievement. J Behav Optom 1991;2(1):16-19.
• Kulp MT, Schmidt PP. Effect of oculomotor and other visual skills on reading performance: a literature review. Optom Vis Sci 1996;73(4):283-92.
• Larsen SC, Hammill DD. The relationship of selected visual perceptual abilities to school learning. J Special Educ 1975;9:281-291.
• Lefton LA. Eye movements in reading disabled children. In: Senders JW; Fisher DF, Monty RA, eds. Eye movements and higher psychological functions. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 1978:225-37.
• Lehrnkuhle S, Garzia RP, Turner L, Hash T, Baro JA. A defective visual pathway in children with reading disability. N EnglJ Med 1993;328:989-96.
• Ludlam WM. Optometric visual training for reading disability--a case report. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 197: 50:58-66.
• Ludlam WM, Twarowski C, Ludlam DP. Optometric visual training for reading for reading disability-A case report. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1973;50:58-66.
• Maples WC, Ficklin T. Comparison of eye movement skills between above and below average readers. J Behav Optom 1990;1:87-91.
• Olsen RK, Kliegl R, Davidson BJ. Dyslexic and normal readers eye movements. J Exp Psych (Hum Percept) 1983;816-825.
• Palidis GT. Eye movements in dyslexia: Diagnostic significance. J Learn Disabil 1985;18:42.
• Pavlidis GT. Eye movement differences between dyslexics, normal, and retarded readers while sequentially fixating digits. Am J Optom Physiol Optics 1985;62:820-832.
• Pavlidis GT. Eye movements in dyslexia: Their diagnostic significance. J Learn Disabil 1985;18:42-50.
• Pierce JR. Is there a relationship between vision therapy and academic achievement? Rev Optom 1977;114:48-63.
• Pirozzolo FJ. Eye movements and reading disability. In: Rayner K, ed. Eye movements in reading: perceptual and language processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:499-509.
• Pollatsek A. What can eye movements tell us about dyslexia? In: Rayner K, ed. Eye movements in reading: perceptual and language processes. New York: Academic Press, 1983:511-21.
• Poynter HL, Schor C, Haynes HM, et al. Oculomotor functions in reading disability. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1982; 59:116-27.
• Punnett AF. Relationship between reinforcement and eye movements during vision therapy with dyslexic children. PhD thesis. Ann Arbor: University of Microfilms, 1981:24.
• Punnett AF, Steinhauer GD. Relationship between reinforcement and eye movements during ocular motor training with learning disabled children. J Learn Disabil 1984; 17: 16-9.
• Rayner K. Eye movements in reading and information processing. Psychol Bull 1978:85:618-60.
• Richman JE. Use of a sustained visual attention task to determine children at risk for learning problems. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:20-6.
• Rosner J. Helping children overcome learning difficulties. 3rd ed. New York: Walker & Company, 1993:189-272.
• Rounds BB, Manley CW, Norris RH. The effect of oculomotor training on reading efficiency. J Am Optom Assoc 1991;62:92-99.
• Scheiman MM, Rouse Mw; eds. Optometric management of learning-related vision problems. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994.
• Seiderman AS. Optometric vision therapy-results of a demonstration project with a learning-disabled population. J Am Optom Assoc 1980;51(5):489-93.
• Sherman A. Relating vision disorders to learning disability. J Am Optom Assoc 1973;44:140-41.
• Solan HA, Press LJ. Optometry and learning disabilities. J Optom Vis Devel 1989;20:5-21.
• Solan HA. The improvement of reading efficiency: A study of sixty three achieving high school students. In: Solan HA (ed) The Psychology of Learning and Reading Difficulties. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973:363-370.
• Solan HA. "Learning disabilities: the role of the developmental optometrist", J Am Optom Assoc. Vol. 50, No. 11, November 1979, p. 260.
• Stanley G, Smith GA, Howell EA. Eye movements and sequential tracking in dyslexic and control children. Brit J Psych 1983;74:181-187.
• Wheeler TA, McQuarrie CW. "Vision, Juvenile Delinquency and Learning Disabilities", paper presented at the National Academy of Practices by the authors in 1992.
• Young BS, Collier-Gary K, Schwing S. Visual factors: a primary cause of failure in beginning reading. J Optom Vis Dev 1994;25(4):276-88.
• Zangwill OL, Blakemore C. Dyslexia: Reversal of eye movements during reading. Neuropsychologica 1972;10:371-373.