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Strabismus Research

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• Bair DR. Symposium: Intermittent exotropia, diagnosis and incidence. Am Orthoptic J 1952;2:12-17.
• Birnbaum MH. Gross motor control and postural characteristics of strabismic patients. J Am Optom Assoc 1974;45:686-96.
• Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC. Experimental analysis of amblyopia and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:176-182.
• Caloroso EE. A sequential strategy for achieving functional binocularity in strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1998;59:378-87.
• Caloroso EE, Rouse MW. Clinical management of strabismus. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
• Chryssanthou G. Orthoptic management of intermittent exotropia. Am OrthoptJ 1974;24:69-72.
• Coffey B, Wick B, Cotter S, et al. Treatment options in intermittent exotropia: A critical appraisal. Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(5):386-404.
• Colorado Vision Consultants. Manual of esotropia therapy. Boulder: Colorado Vision Consultants, 1985. Cooper EL, Leyman IA. The management of intermittent exotropia: A comparison of the results of surgical and non-surgical treatment. Am Orthoptic J 1977;27:61-67.
• Cooper J. Intermittent exotropia of the divergence excess type. J Am Optom Assoc 1977;48:1261-1273.
• Cooper J, Medow N. Major Review: Intermittent exotropia: Basic and divergence excess type. Bin Vis Eye Muscle Surg 1993;8(3):185-216. Crone RA. Diplopia. New York: American Elsevier Publishing, 1973.
• Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV, Stark L. Saccadic intrusions in strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1979;97:1673-9.
• Dale RT. Fundamentals of ocular motility and strabismus. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1982.
• Daum KM. Equal exodeviations: Characteristics and results of treatment with orthoptics. Aust J Optom 1984; 67(2):53-9. Day SH, Norcia AM. Infantile esotropia and the developing visual system. In: Greenwald MJ, eds. Pediatric ophthalmology clinics of North America. Philadelphia: WE Saunders, 1990;3:281-7.
• Duke-Elder S, Wybar K. Ocular motility and strabismus. In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of ophthalmology. Vol. 6. St. Louis: Mosby, 1973.
• Etting G. Strabismus therapy in private practice: Cure rates after three months of therapy. J Am Optom Assoc 1978; 49:1367-73.
• Flax N. The optometric treatment of intermittent divergent strabismus. Proceedings from the Eastern Seaboard V.T. Conference, Washington, DC, 1963, pp. 52-57.
• Flax N, Duckman RH. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:1353-61.
• Fletcher CF, Silverman SJ. Strabismus. Part I. A summary of 1110 consecutive cases. Am J Ophthalmol 1966;61:86-94.
• Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan, MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990.
• Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. In: Hirsch MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of children. Philadelphia: Clinton, 1963:197-228.
• Flax N. Strabismus diagnosis and prognosis. In: Schor C, Ciuffreda KF, eds. Vergence eye movements: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butrerworths, 1983:579-95.
• Flynn JT. Strabismus: A neurodevelopmental approach: Nature's experiment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.
• Forrest EB. Treating infant esotropia: A case report. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1978;55 :463-465.
• Frantz KA. The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess. J Am Optom Assoc 1990; 61(6):457-62.
• Garriott RS, Heyman CL, Rouse MW. Case Report: Role of optometric vision therapy for surgically treated strabismus patients. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74(4):179-84. Getz DJ. Strabismus and amblyopia. 2nd ed. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1990.
• Gillan RU. An analysis of one hundred cases of strabismus treated orthoptically. Br J Ophthalmol 1945;29:420-8.
• Gnibor GP. Practical details in the orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1934;12:887-901.
• Goldrich SG. Optometric therapy of divergence excess strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:7-14.
• Graham PA. Epidemiology of strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:224-31.
• Greenwald I. Effective strabismus therapy. Duncan: Optometric Extension Program, 1979.
• Gillie JC, Lindsay J. Orthoptics: a discussion of binocular anomalies. London: The Hatton Press Ltd., 1969.
• Griffin JR. Binocular anomalies: procedures for vision therapy. 2nd ed. Chicago: Professional Press, 1982.
• Hoffman L, Cohen AH, Feuer G, et al. Effectiveness of optometric therapy for strabismus in a private practice. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1970;47:990-5.
• Kertesz AE, Kertesz J. Wide-field stimulation in strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1986;63:217-22.
• Krumholtz I, FitzGerald DE. Outcome indicators in a strabismic sample treated by vision therapy. J Behav Optom 1999; 10(6):143-6. Ludlam W. Management of infantile strabismus: research issues and standards of care. J Optom Vis Devel 1993:24:8-14.
• Ludlam WM. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1961;38:369-88.
• Ludlam WM, Kleinman BI. The long range results of orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1965;42:647-84.
• McGraw LG. Guiding strabismus therapy. Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1991.
• Parks M. Oculomotility and strabismus. In: Duane TD,ed. Clinical ophthalmology. Hagerstown, MD: Harper & Row, 1979:1.
• Pickwell D. Binocular vision anomalies. London: Butterworths, 1984.
• Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. Management of strabimus and amblyopia: A practical guide. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1994.
• Press LJ. Challenging the Adaption. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.
• Press LJ. Topical review: strabismus. J Optom Vis Devel 1991;22:5-20.
• Press LJ. Amblyopia and Strabismus. In: Press LJ, Moore BD, eds. Clinical pediatric optometry. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
• Sanfilippo S, Clahane AC. The effectiveness of orthoptics alone in selected cases of exodeviation: the immediate results and several years later. Am OrthoptJ 1970;20:104-17.
• Selenow A, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an adult esotropic amblyope. J Am Optom Assoc 1986; 57(2):132-40. Stark L, Ciuffreda KJ, Grisham D, Kenyon RV, Kiu J, Polse K. Accommodative dysfacility presenting as intermittent exotropia. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1984;4:233-244
• Von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility: theory and management of strabismus. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 1990.
• Von Noorden GK. A reassessment of infantile esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;105:1-10.
• Von Noorden GK, Helveston EM. Strabismus: a Decision Making Approach. St. Louis: Mosby; 1994.
• Wick B. Visual therapy for small angle esotropia. Am J Optom PhysiolOpt 1974;51:490-6.
• Wick B et al. Characteristics and prevalence of exotropia in clinic populations. Poster Program, American Academy of Optometry, Nashville, TN 1990.
• Ziegler D, Huff D, Rouse MW. Success in strabismus therapy: a literature review. J Am Optom Assoc 1982;53:979-83.